The World Health Organisation says insufficient physical activity is a leading risk factor for non-communicable disease, negatively impacting mental health and overall quality of life.
A newly-released study published in The Lancet Global Health journal on Wednesday, highlighted the well-established benefits of being physically active, including a lower risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and diabetes, as well as breast and colon cancer.
Additionally, physical activity has positive effects on mental health, can delay the onset of dementia, and help people maintain a healthy weight, the WHO study revealed.
The study’s lead author, Regina Guthold, of WHO Switzerland, warned that more adults are lagging behind the recommended levels of physical activity required for a healthy life.
“Unlike other major global health risks, levels of insufficient physical activity are not falling worldwide, on average, and over a quarter of all adults are not reaching the recommended levels of physical activity for good health,” Guthold warned.
The study detailed the levels of insufficient physical activity in different countries and estimates global and regional trends.
The findings reveal that there has been no improvement in global levels of physical activity since 2001 and that some one-in-three women and one-in-four men globally are not active enough to stay healthy.
Moreover, levels of insufficient physical activity are more than twice as great in high-income countries as compared to that of low-income nations, with a five per cent increase in higher income countries between 2001 and 2016.
There has been little progress in improving physical activity levels during that 15-year period, with data projecting that if these trends continue, the 2025 global activity target of a 10 per cent relative reduction in insufficient physical activity, would not be met.
Other main findings showed that by the end of 2016, in 55 of 168 countries, more than one-third of the population was insufficiently physically active.
More than half of all adults in Kuwait, American Samoa, Saudi Arabia, and Iraq were insufficiently active, while inadequate levels elsewhere of 40 per cent appeared in the U.S., 36 per cent in the United Kingdom and 14 per cent in China.
Only six per cent of adults in Uganda and Mozambique were insufficiently active – the lowest levels of all countries.
The greatest levels of insufficient activity comparing women and men appeared in South Asia (43 versus 24 per cent ), Central Asia, Middle East and north Africa (40 versus 26 per cent ), and high-income Western countries (42 versus 31 per cent ).
Around one-in-three women and one-in-four men worldwide did not reach the recommended 150 minutes of moderate intensity, or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity per week.
Across regions, many individual countries recorded large differences in insufficient activity between women and men, such as 40 versus 16 per cent in Bangladesh, 31 versus 14 per cent in Eritrea, 44 versus 25 per cent in India, 48 versus 32 per cent in the U.S., and 40 versus 32 per cent in the UK.
“Addressing these inequalities in physical activity levels between men and women will be critical to achieving global activity targets and will require interventions to promote and improve women’s access to opportunities that are safe, affordable and culturally acceptable,” said WHO co-author Fiona Bull.
The study is based on self-reported activity levels – including at work, home, and in transit, as well as during leisure time – for those aged 18 and above, from 358 population-based surveys in 168 countries, consisting of around 1.9 million people.
You May Wish To Consider Any Of These Types Of Exercise That Is Appropriate For You
Types of Exercise
Exercise and physical activity fall into four basic categories—endurance, strength, balance, and flexibility. Most people tend to focus on one activity or type of exercise and think they’re doing enough. Each type is different, though. Doing them all will give you more benefits. Mixing it up also helps to reduce boredom and cut your risk of injury.
Some activities fit into more than one category. For example, many endurance activities also build strength. Strength exercises can also help improve balance.
Endurance, or aerobic, activities increase your breathing and heart rate. They keep your heart, lungs, and circulatory system healthy and improve your overall fitness. Building your endurance makes it easier to carry out many of your everyday activities. Endurance exercises include:
• Brisk walking or jogging
• Yard work (mowing, raking, digging)
• Dancing StrengthStrength exercises make your muscles stronger. They may help you stay independent and carry out everyday activities, such as climbing stairs and carrying groceries. These exercises also are called “strength training” or “resistance training.” Strength exercises include:
• Lifting weights
• Using a resistance band
• Using your own body weight
Balance exercises help prevent falls, a common problem in older adults. Many lower-body strength exercises will also improve your balance.
Balance exercises include:
• Standing on one foot
• Heel-to-toe walk
• Tai Chi
Flexibility exercises stretch your muscles and can help your body stay limber. Being flexible gives you more freedom of movement for other exercises as well as for your everyday activities, including driving and getting dressed. Flexibility exercises include:
• Shoulder and upper arm stretch
• Calf stretch