Safeguard the ocean and its resources from unlawful exploitation and intentional critical damage.
The unlawful or hostile exploitation of the maritime domain also requires attention. The vulnerability is not just within U.S. territorial seas and internal waters. In the future, the United States can anticipate increased foreign fishing vessel incursions into its exclusive economic zones, which may have serious economic consequences for the United States . Protecting our living marine resources from unlawful or hostile damage has become a matter of national concern. Potential consequences of such damage include conflict and regional instability among nations over the control of marine resources to the detriment of all. The United States and other nations have a substantial economic and security interest in preserving the health and productive capacity of the oceans. We will continue to project a U.S. presence by monitoring and patrolling the United States ‘ exclusive economic zones and certain high seas areas of national interest.
Assisting regional partners to maintain the maritime sovereignty of their territorial seas and internal waters is a longstanding objective of the United States and contributes directly to the partners’ economic development as well as their ability to combat unlawful or hostile exploitation by a variety of threats. For example, as a result of our active discussions with African partners, the United States is now appropriating funding for the implementation of border and coastal security initiatives along the lines of the former Africa Coastal Security (ACS) Program. Preventing unlawful or hostile exploitation of the maritime domain requires that nations collectively improve their capability to monitor activity throughout the domain, establish responsive decision-making architectures, enhance maritime interdiction capacity, develop effective policing protocols, and build intergovernmental cooperation. The United States , in cooperation with its allies, will lead an international effort to improve monitoring and enforcement capabilities through enhanced cooperation at the bilateral, regional, and global level.
The United States recognizes that, because of the extensive global connectivity among businesses and governments, its maritime security policies affect other nations, and that significant local and regional incidents will have global effects. Success in securing the maritime domain will not come from the United States acting alone, but through a powerful coalition of nations maintaining a strong, united, international front. The need for a strong and effective coalition is reinforced by the fact that m ost of the maritime domain is under no single nation’s sovereignty or jurisdiction. Additionally, increased economic interdependency and globalization, largely made possible by maritime shipping, underscores the need for a coordinated international approach. Less than
3 percent of the international waterborne trade of the United States is carried on vessels owned, operated, and crewed by U.S. citizens. The United States also recognizes that t he vast majority of actors and activities within the maritime domain are legitimate. Security of the maritime domain can be accomplished only by seamlessly employing all instruments of national power in a fully coordinated manner in concert with other nation-states consistent with international law.
Maritime security is best achieved by blending public and private maritime security activities on a global scale into a comprehensive, integrated effort that addresses all maritime threats. Maritime security crosses disciplines, builds upon current and future efforts, and depends on scalable layers of security to prevent a single point of failure. Full and complete national and international coordination, cooperation, and intelligence and information sharing among public and private entities are required to protect and secure the maritime domain. Collectively, these five strategic actions achieve the objectives of this Strategy:
• Enhance International Cooperation
• Maximize Domain Awareness
• Embed Security into Commercial Practices
• Deploy Layered Security
• Assure Continuity of the Marine Transportation System
These five strategic actions are not stand-alone activities. Domain awareness is a critical enabler for all strategic actions. Deploying layered security addresses not only layers of prevention (interdiction and preemption) and protection (deterrence and defense) activities, but also the integration of domestic and international layers of security provided by the first three strategic actions.
Enhance International Cooperation
Enhance international cooperation to ensure lawful and timely enforcement actions against maritime threats.
As the world’s individual national economies become ever more closely integrated , it is critical that nations coordinate and, where appropriate, collectively integrate their security activities to secure the maritime domain . Accordingly, the United States supports close cooperation among nations and international organizations that share common interests regarding the security of the maritime domain. This strategic action is designed to involve all nations that have an interest in maritime security, as well as the ability and willingness to take steps to defeat terrorism and maritime crime. Fundamental to this cooperation must be a shared understanding of threat priorities to unify actions and plans.
New initiatives are needed to ensure that all nations fulfill their responsibilities to prevent and respond to terrorist or criminal actions with timely and effective enforcement. More robust international mechanisms will ensure improved transparency in the registration of vessels and identification of ownership, cargoes, and crew of the world’s multinational, multi-flag merchant marine. Weak regulations and enforcement by some nations hinder transparency. Terrorists and criminals are currently exploiting this vulnerability by re-registering vessels under fictitious corporate names, and renaming and repainting vessels. New initiatives will be pursued diplomatically through international organizations such as the International Maritime Organization, the World Customs Organization, and International Standards Organization that already involve strong participation by industry. Where appropriate, these initiatives will build upon existing efforts, such as the Container Security Initiative, the Proliferation Security Initiative, the Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism, the nonproliferation amendments to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation and the International Code for the Security of Ships and Port Facilities (ISPS Code), and the 2002 amendments to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 . Initiatives will be coordinated by the Department of State and will include provisions such as:
•Implementing standardized international security and World Customs Organization frameworks for customs practices and standards to ensure that goods and people entering a country do not pose a threat;
•Expanding the use of modernized and automated systems, processes, and trade-data information to make vessel registration, ownership, and operation, as well as crew and cargo identification, more transparent and readily available in a timely manner;
•Developing, funding, and implementing effective measures for interdicting suspected terrorists or criminals;
•Developing and expanding means for rapid exchanges among governments of relevant intelligence and law enforcement information concerning suspected terrorist or criminal activity in the maritime domain;
•Adopting streamlined procedures to verify nationality and take appropriate and verifiable enforcement action against vessels in a timely manner consistent with the well-established doctrine of exclusive flag State jurisdiction;
•Expanding the United States Government’s capabilities to prescreen international cargo prior to lading;
•Adopting procedures for enforcement action against vessels entering or leaving a nation’s ports, internal waters, or territorial seas when they are reasonably suspected of carrying terrorists or criminals or supporting a terrorist or criminal endeavor; and
•Adopting streamlined procedures for inspecting vessels reasonably suspected of carrying suspicious cargo and seizing such cargo when it is identified as subject to confiscation.
The smooth operation of the global economy depends on the free flow of shipping through straits used for international navigation. A bout one third of the world’s trade and half its oil traverse the Straits of Malacca and Singapore . Many of these key international waterways are relatively narrow and could be closed to shipping, at least temporarily, by an accident or terrorist attack. The United States will use the agencies and components of the Federal Government in innovative ways to improve the security of sea-lanes that pass through international straits. We will work with our regional and international partners to expand maritime security efforts. Regional maritime security regimes are a major international component of this Strategy and are essential for ensuring the effective security of regional seas.
The United States will continue to promote development of cooperative mechanisms for coordinating regional measures against maritime threats that span national boundaries and jurisdictions. By reducing the potential for regional conflict, maritime security is enhanced worldwide. The United States will also work closely with other governments and international and regional organizations to enhance the maritime security capabilities of other key nations by:
•Offering maritime and port security assistance, training, and consultation;
•Coordinating and prioritizing maritime security assistance and liaison within regions;
•Allocating economic assistance to developing nations for maritime security to enhance security and prosperity;
•Promoting implementation of the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation and its amendments and other international agreements; and
•Expanding the International Port Security and Maritime Liaison Officer Programs, and the number of agency attachés.
CONTINUES NEXT WEEK